Viche 2007 17

17, 2007

And today about Khortystya!

Sacred, legendary, glorious All this is about Khortytsya. And it is also the only one in the world, unique and irresistible. In the ancient pas it belonged to Cossacks, and presently it is native, Ukrainian. It is astonishing, magic pearl under the eternal stars. It is a divine candle on the site of fire of history. It is preserved here by people and dogs, birds and insects, vipers and grass-snakes. There is such quiet in secret places, that one can hear butterflies flying, not trampled and virgin grass breathing gaily.

The first written evidence about Khortytsya was left by the Byzantine emperor Kostyantyn Bagronorodnyi in his work About the rule of empire ( century), where the way from Varangians to Greeks is described in the ninth section, the Dniper thresholds are mentioned, and after them the island of Saint George (Georgiy) is mentioned. There are several versions of the present name. According to the most widespread it is descended from the name of Slavonic god of the Sun Khorsa, according to the second from Turkic ort, orta, orda (middle). In chronicles from ancient times the famous island is styled variously, but always respectfully: Khortych, Gorodetsk, Kortytsk, Ortynsk. It was first marked in 1436 on the map of Venetian A. Bianka. The general area of the island is about three thousand hectares (the length is12 km, the width is 2,5 km). Presently Khortytsya (actually in the center of Zaporozhia after the dike of the Dniper hydroelectric power station) is a complex historical, cultural and natural protective area where about 70 unique sights are preserved. With the purpose of their immortalization the Council of Ministers of the USSR declared the territory of Khortytsya the State historical and cultural reserve on September, 18, 1965. The decree made on October, 28, 1974 about creation of geological reserve Dniper thresholds with the total area of 1383 hectares played a significant role in the matter of defence of natural environment. In 1993 the reserve was given the status of National. With the purpose of further building of the unique complex and because of implementation of the Decree of the President of Ukraine 732 from April, 29, 2005 About urgent measures concerning the development of the National reserve Khortytsya the conception of the government program of its development, which is approved by the special order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, was made.



As Dmytro Yavornytskyi testifies, there were eight siches: Khortytska, Bazavlutska, Tomakivska, Mykytynska, chortomlutska, Oleshkivska, Kamyanska and Nova (Pidpilenska), and - after the destruction of Zaporizhzhya as the core of Ukraine by the Russian tsar Zadunayska Sich.  Khortytsya has always been the symbol of Cossack freedom, firmness and knighthood.

 Again and again earth billows were renewed, palisade was put in line, decoration of the church of Pokrova of the Blessed Virgin (Cossacks had small Pokrova churches) became richer, a sich market was in full swing, where even worthy zaporozhian Cossacks liked to walk. They did not acknowledge serfdom; they didnt know the feudal property on earth. And they didnt permit women to the Sich even on a cannon-shot.

The hetmanate of Petro Sagaydachnyi had a great significance for the development of Zaporizhska Sich (the year of birth is unknown 1622 year), who carried out a military reform, converting separate Cossack detachments into the high-organized army. Later it had key part in the protracted folk fight against oppression of serfdom and national burden. The Cossacks were really glorified during the rule of Kryshtof Kosynskyi (1591-93), Severyn Nalyvayko (1594-96) and Pavlo Pavlyuk (1637). By the rebellion in January, 1648 the Cossacks began the liberation war under the direction of Bogdan Khmelnytskyi (exactly zaporozhian Cossacks gave refuge to the fugitive from the Polish outrage future hetman). The envoys of Khortytsya delivered sledge-hammer blows to foreigner troops in many battles, in particular in Zhovtovodska (1648), Pylyavetska (1648), Zborivska (1649) and Batozka(1652).

 - The turning point in the history of the Zaporozhian Sich was the Pereyasliv Council in 1654, -mentions the director manager of cultural and educational department of the reserve Tetyana MYTROFANOVA.