Українською | In English
Viche 2009 №23

№23, 2009

Arms Market. Competition Inflexibility

The modern world arms market unlike in previous decade is characterized with not strategic but mainly commercial competition. Political factors which prevailed in the field of weapon trade in 1970–1980-th or even in 1990-th of the last century give way to market ones, the traditional understanding of weapon trade as of intergovernmental export foremost of the large systems of Arms and Military Equipment (AME) starts changing. As a result, all exporters are classified in accordance with the levels of hierarchy:

1)              The first level includes the states which have independent developments and innovations in military production, introduction of the newest technologies, and also in circulating and transfers of the difficult systems of the AME;

2)              The second level includes the states which produce weapon on the newest or close to them technologies, however, unlike the countries of the previous group, have considerably lower national necessities in weapon and are limited in own possibilities in relation to maintenance of powerful defensive-industrial complex (France, Germany, Great Britain);

3)              The third level includes the states which have military production of mediocre level, that due to economic or political limitations and problems do not develop properly – do not have substantial technological break-through (as it is, for example, in Ukraine, PAIR, Brazil, North Korea and other).

 

“Scientists have been waiting for some pandemic for forty years that is why everyone is worried because of the Californian flu”, – the head of the virology department of the P. Shchupyka National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, the doctor of medical sciences Iryna Dzyublyk says. 

The World Health Organization on June, 11, 2009 first for the last over 40 years declared about the introduction of the sixth – maximal level of pandemic threat in connection with the quick widespread of flu A/H1N1in the world. On October, 30 in Ukraine the epidemic of flu and quarantine was officially declared in 9 regions. Agiotage and panic round it generated different gossips.

The editorial staff appealed with a request to comment on the situation to the deserved doctor of Ukraine, Professor Iryna DZYUBLYK. 

– First of all it is necessary to underline that the efficiency of any vaccine against flu depends above all things on age and condition of organism of the vaccinated and on the level of likeness between the viruses of vaccine and viruses which circulate during an epidemic or flu pandemic. Almost all children and young adults after the inoculation have the high titres of specific antibodies already in two-three weeks after vaccination. Of course, in a month or two these titres achieve the highest number. When viruses of vaccine and viruses of flu, which circulate in an epidemic period, and are alike after antigens, the vaccine prevents the falling ill because of flu in approximately 70–90 percents of healthy people under the age 65 years. For people of declining years and patients with chronic diseases the vaccine can be effective in prevention of the secondary complications, in the decline of risk of the hospitalization and frequency of mortal cases because of the flu.

Secondly, presently in Ukraine only inactive influenza vaccine (which is without a living virus) is registered and offered to application for the season 2009–2010. This inactive vaccine contains only certain superficial albumens of flu virus (more frequent hemagglutinin), to which specific antibodies able to protect from the disease are produced. Two inactive vaccines against the pandemic flu virus are on registration and so far can not be offered.

Thirdly, taking into account the world experience regarding the motion of epidemic process in the countries of the South hemisphere – Australia, New Zealand, countries of South America and South Africa (there falling ill because of flu was mostly entailed by a new pandemic virus, and there were up to 40 percent of patients with a seasonal flu, however), the WHO calls not to forget about seasonal vaccination in those countries of the North hemisphere where seasonal and pandemic viruses circulate together. Analyzing the situation which exists in Ukraine presently, we see that except for a pandemic virus pathogenic organisms of seasonal flu A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B circulate in our country as well. Their considerable role in the development of pathology and death rate is proved by both world and national experience.

So our population (at least the groups of medical and social risk) is needed to be protected and vaccination is the best protection. However, the question of vaccinal prevention strategy, in particular against flu, when and who should be vaccinated first of all and with what vaccines etc., can be hardly answered in our state under current conditions. No specialist will give one and unique answer to it.